Image by Marc-Olivier Jodoin


Urban areas account for 67-76% of global energy consumption (Güneralp et al., 2017), exemplifying the need for robust energy providing systems in cities. Energy providing systems in the world are of two main forms. The first form involves finding, refining and distributing material resources that store energy (such as oil in pipelines) while the second form produces and distributes electrical energy (produced from material resources or otherwise).  Energy providing systems include material inputs (e.g. manpower, natural resources), service inputs (e.g. finance, accounting, research & development, logistics), distributive firms and regulatory agencies.

Image by Matthew Henry

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